By Taslim Ahammad:
Managing manpower includes the unique understanding of different work and communication styles, as well as different personality types. Manpower Planning which is also called as Human Resource Planning consists of putting right number of people, right kind of people at the right place, right time, doing the right things for which they are suited for the achievement of goals of the organization and the country as a whole.
Manpower is the strength or force of a human, or else the combined strength of a group of people who can work to get something done. Manpower planning is the process of estimating the optimum number of people required for completing a project, task or a goal within time. The manpower planning process is an ongoing and continuous strategy which is undertaken through a systematic set of procedures. Need to be able to understand the business objectives and the HR levers to help the business achieve its strategy in the most efficient way. These include leadership development, goal-setting and talent management. Manpower analysis is the process by which an activity’s manpower assets are matched to or balanced against authorised billets to determine strengths and weaknesses in manning structure. Each command must identify, through manpower analysis, future manning shortfalls and take appropriate actions to alleviate them.
Importance of manpower planning: (i) Key to managerial functions – The four managerial functions, i.e., planning, organizing, directing and controlling are based upon the manpower. Human resources help in the implementation of all these managerial activities. Therefore, staffing becomes a key to all managerial functions. (ii) Efficient utilization – Efficient management of personnel becomes an important function in the industrialization world of today. Setting of large scale enterprises require management of large scale manpower. It can be effectively done through staffing function. (iii) Motivation – Staffing function not only includes putting right men on right job, but it also comprises of motivational programmes, i.e., incentive plans to be framed for further participation and employment of employees in a concern. Therefore, all types of incentive plans becomes an integral part of staffing function. (iv) Better human relations – A concern can stabilize itself if human relations develop and are strong. Human relations become strong trough effective control, clear communication, effective supervision and leadership in a concern. Staffing function also looks after training and development of the work force which leads to co-operation and better human relations. (v) Higher productivity – Productivity level increases when resources are utilized in best possible manner.
Making future manpower forecasts: (1) Expert forecasts – This includes informal decisions, formal expert surveys and other techniques (2) Trend analysis – Manpower needs can be projected through extrapolation (projecting past trends), indexation (using base year as basis), and statistical analysis (central tendency measure). (3) Work load analysis – It is dependent upon the nature of work load in a department, in a branch or in a division. (4) Work force analysis – Whenever production and time period has to be analysed, due allowances have to be made for getting net manpower requirements. (5) Future expansion – Future plane expansion to expand the resources so the supply will increase to meet future demand needs, human resources manager need to hire the new staff to meet the supply and demand factor as well. (6) Internal demand – The internal factor are those with the manager or senior member can apply to the organization for the manpower demand prediction for future. (7) Economy factor – the most common factor is economy has major labour turnover over the period of time. (8) Customer demand – As there are the many events and festivities round the year, so supply needs be available to meet the customer expectation an organisation needs to hire highly skill staff that will be future demand factor. (9) Other methods: Several mathematical models, with the aid of computers are used to forecast manpower needs, like budget and planning analysis, regression, and new venture analysis.
Manpower planning process: (i) Understanding the existing workforce – The HR department has to thoroughly understand the manpower available with the company. They should examine the background, skill set, qualification, location etc. of the entire work force so that they have a good idea regarding the pool of talent which the company has. (ii) Forecasting for the future – With constant changes in business requirements, companies must understand the future trend and which type of employees would be best suited for their organization. Hence, companies must examine, evaluate and forecast the type of employee workforce they want in the future years. (iii) Recruitment and selection – Depending upon the business requirements, manpower planning leads to a much more well thought out recruitment and selection pattern. This totally depends upon the forecasts made and the business requirements. Hence, candidates with better qualification, skill set, experience etc. are shortlisted as employees to best suit the future needs. (iv) Train employees – Employees who are a part of the organization are trained to have the best skills, knowledge and understanding about the current job as well as the future requirements. Training programmes depend upon the extent of improvement in technology and advancement to take place. It is also done to improve upon the skills, capabilities, knowledge of the workers.
Once the current inventory is compared with future forecasts, the employment programmes can be framed and developed accordingly, which will include recruitment, selection procedures and placement plans.
Manpower planning is an essential requirement for any business organisation. The manpower planning must introduce to the company to improve the situation of the company. Good planning can bring the company raise the income and increase efficiency output. To realize the importance of manpower management which ultimately helps in the stability of a concern and human resources can be readily available and they can be utilized in best manner its helps hugely.
Taslim Ahammad, Assistant Professor
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science and Technology University, Gopalganj, Bangladesh.