Up until now, in my previous articles I talked about Asia and Bangladesh the southern hemisphere of world, in climate Topic and how the climate change effecting and causing damages to. Now, here I moved to the Northern Hemisphere of the Earth and how this is effected by Climate Change.
I have written about Albedo explained a little about how it’s fed back functioning. There are positive and negative, increase and decrease albedo feedback system. The albedo feedback system massively impact on our earths cryosphere. In the northern hemisphere the cryosphere is the key dominating factor. With the rising temperature due to additional accumulated emmission up in the atmosphere, it’s effecting on the feedback loop causing damages to the cryosphere, and resulting to loss of ice.
Our scientists are already shocking concern and raising alarm to alert people about the climate change damages occurring to our cryosphere. In the north pole the penguins and other ice habitat species are in extinct due to change of temperature and melting ice. The Alaska glacier already melted to a normal lake type. Changes began from early 40s to this decade. In the Atlantic Ice sheet softened and lake ways formed in-between by ice melting.
The key impacts of climate change on the cryosphere are the warming of the oceans leading to a loss of sea ice leading to a decrease of Albedo. The breaking up of Glacier Ice tongues through increased Calving events causing increased glacier flows. The melting of the surface of Ice forming pools which absorb more heat and eventually find there way to the base of Glacier lubricating the flow of the Glacier and increasing the Glacier flow. The thawing of permafrost allowing the stored carbon to be released as CO2 or Methane. All the above events being positive feedback loops amplifying each other and increasing the Climate Change impacts.
The areas of the world that are most vulnerable to the effects of climate change are those that are at risk to sea level rise and those that already experience extreme weather events. Sea level rise will be slow in human terms and may in some areas such as cities be initially held at bay with levees and engineering solutions. Other areas such as the Mekong Delta example will suffer the incursion of salt water into farm lands spoiling crops and causing shortages of food. Eventually they will be occasionally flooded and then lost to the tides.
Some countries which large areas of low land such as Holland will loose very large areas of land and many homes as the existing sea defences are overcome. Parts of the planet that suffer from dry periods will have longer and more severe droughts, The Murray River in Australia is starting to dry up in places and the pictures of a carpet of dead fish is a very stark warning of things to come. The Water levels recorded in the Colorado river that feeds Lake Mead is lower that before due to decreased rainfall over many years.
The farm lands of America could turn back into the dust bowl of the 1930’s and desertification in many areas will increase. Other Areas will suffer from other types of extreme weather. Monsoons will be wetter and cause more flooding such as it being experienced in Townsville Australia in what is being described in the media as a one in a thousand year event. They might find that they will not have to wait a thousand years for the next one.
Typhoons and Hurricanes have increased increase in intensity as they absorb more energy from the increased sea temperatures causing coastal flooding from the storm surges and greater destruction from the extreme winds. The melting and desalination of the Arctic will disrupt the Deep Ocean Currents that distribute heat around the planet. This will have massive effects to globally no doubt will be bad. It presumably will effect heat, loss of warmth to Northern Europe and the UK.
The operation of the cryospheric system is intriguing. We learned that the cryosphere is not in equilibrium: the contributions of accumulation, ablation and calving, ‘debuttresing’ and the calving flood. We’ve learned that climate change during the Holocene is characterized by repeated dramatic shifts in temperature and greenhouse gas concentrations and interludes of extensive glaciation and sea level change producing extensive environmental impacts at all latitudes.
The positive feedback that increase of albedo is not a positive thing for climate per it retains more heat. More or excess heat result to dissolve more ice, all goes back to vicious circle. The variations of sea ice and ocean extent provided another positive feedback system directly impacting greenhouse gas blanket. Fossil fuel products also have disastrous impacts on ocean and ocean margin ecosystems including significant interruptions of the food chain and species viability. Melting ice will have many different effects; will add to vapour, change in weathering for example precipitation pattern of irregularity. A percentage of melting water will add to sea and cause sea level to rise. And due to ice melting, temperature will rise and cause death to snow habitat species. Also, permafrost is another issue as I wrote in the last methane article.
In addition to all, the oceans are suffering already. I will in detail, explain the effect of climate change to our Ocean in the next article.
Fatema Miah, Solihull, uk. firstname.lastname@example.org